Provided are a silicon through hole detection structure and a detection method. The silicon through hole detection structure comprises a semiconductor substrate, a silicon through hole located in the semiconductor substrate, an interlamination medium layer located on the semiconductor substrate and the surface of the silicon through hole and a detection metal layer located on the surface of the interlamination medium layer. The detection metal layer is located over the silicon through hole. Detection voltage is used to detect puncture voltage between the silicon through hole and the detection metal layer and a resistance value of the detection metal layer, so that whether copper protrusions exist on the surface of silicon through hole can be judged. The detection is sensitive and convenient.