The invention discloses a preparation technology of a Fe-20wt%Cu based brake material. In consideration of the improvement of the base strength and the brake performance, Fe-20wt%Cu powder is adopted as a base and is added with a lubricating component containing MoS2 and flake graphite, a friction component SiC, a reinforcing component containing Al and Ni and an alloy component containing Mn and Cr, and the Fe-20wt%Cu based brake material is prepared through the induction heating sintering and combustion reaction synthesis method. The preparation technology comprises the following specific steps: steel backing processing, powder weighing, mixing, pressing, sintering, cooling, sample cleaning, and property testing. The smaller the crystal particles of the base are, the higher the compressive strength of the brake material is; the smaller the porosity is, the higher the compressive strength of the brake material is, and the smaller the wear rate is. The preparation method of the Fe-20wt%Cu based brake material is reasonable in process and easy to control, and the prepared brake material has the characteristics of high thermal intensity, stable friction coefficient, small wear rate and low cost.